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Morphological character of the dark bee

The dark native honey bee, Apis mellifera mellifera, is defined by having a cubital index of no more than 1.9 and a discoidal shift angle of less than zero degrees (a minus reading).

The average results for stocks of the highest purity can be in the region of:

Cubital index            1.48

Discoidal shift         -5.50 degrees

The average results for the majority of native dark bees in this country however are:

Cubital index           1.72

Discoidal shift         -2.40 degrees

In Carniolan & Italian bees the the averages are:

Cubital index            higher than 2.4

Discoidal shift           higher than zero degrees (a plus reading)

The illustration below is a forewing from one of my bees in the highest purity group showing: 

Cubital index of 1.33 (length of ‘a’ divided by length of ‘b)’

Discoidal shift angle -7.5 (number of degrees angle to the left of the right angled vertical line).

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